044 – GTH: How Texas Kept Clay From the White House



Theodore Frelinghuysen by Mathew Brady [c. 1855-1865], courtesy of the Library of Congress
John Tyler’s unexpected ascendancy to the presidency causes both Whigs and Democrats to think and rethink their strategies for the 1844 presidential election. Presumptive candidates Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren prepare to lead their respective parties into the general campaign, but for both, complications arise that threaten their political futures as the ambitious new president makes a priority of bringing Texas into the Union. Dissension in the ranks, rivals for power, and increased sectional tensions all threaten to make 1844 a year that Clay and Van Buren may wish to forget. Source information for this episode can be found at http://whhpodcast.blubrry.com


043 – Source Notes



Willie Person Mangum by James Lambdin [c. 1844], courtesy of Wikipedia
Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Adams, Charles Francis, ed. Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, Comprising Portions of His Diary From 1795 to 1848, Vol. VIII. Philadelphia, PA: J B Lippincott & Co, 1876.
  • Chitwood, Oliver Perry. John Tyler: Champion of the Old South. Newtown, CT: American Political Biography Press, 2003 [1939].
  • Coit, Margaret L. John C Calhoun: American Portrait. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1950.
  • Gunderson, Robert Gray. The Log-Cabin Campaign. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977 [1957].
  • Holt, Michael F. The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Niven, John. Martin Van Buren: The Romantic Age of American Politics. Newtown, CT: American Political Biography Press, 2012 [1983].
  • Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. New York: W W Norton & Co, 1991.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.
  • Seager, Robert, II, ed. The Papers of Henry Clay, Volume 8: Candidate, Compromiser, Whig March 5, 1829-December 31, 1836. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1984.
  • Sellers, Charles. “Election of 1844.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1971. pp. 747-861.

043 – With Friends Like These



Harrison Token from 1840 Election, photo by Wehwalt, courtesy of Wikipedia

He may have lost in 1832, but that didn’t mean that Henry Clay lost his desire for the presidency. As 1836 and 1840 neared, each time, the gentleman from Kentucky had to decide whether to go for the gold once more. However, he would find the way in both contests littered with other Whig contenders in addition to old Sweet Sandy Whiskers (aka: Martin Van Buren) on the Democratic side. Nevertheless, the Senator persevered through the late 1830s and would take on presidents, generals, senators, pro-slavery southerners, and abolitionists in his quest to make it to the White House. Source information for this episode can be found at http://whhpodcast.blubrry.com.


042 – Source Notes



Electoral College Map for the 1832 Election by Cg-realms and AndyHogan14, courtesy of Wikipedia

Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Coit, Margaret L. John C Calhoun: American Portrait. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1950.
  • Cole, Donald B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1993.
  • Holt, Michael F. The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Kahan, Paul. The Bank War: Andrew Jackson, Nicholas Biddle, and the Fight for American Finance. Yardley, PA: Westholme, 2016.
  • Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1997.
  • Remini, Robert V. “Election of 1832.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1971. pp. 495-574.
  • Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. New York: W W Norton & Co, 1991.
  • Seager, Robert, II, ed. The Papers of Henry Clay, Volume 8: Candidate, Compromiser, Whig March 5, 1829-December 31, 1836. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1984.

For a lighter take and more information on the 1832 election, check out Election College’s episode on the presidential election of 1832 which goes into the Eaton Affair, something that was outside of the purview of this episode.


042 – Years of Striving



Henry Clay and the American System campaign token [c. 1832], courtesy of the Virginia Historical Society
After the defeat in 1828, the pro-Adams camp forms a new political party, the National Republicans, which turns to the willing and eager Henry Clay to lead them against Andrew Jackson and to carry the party banner towards victory in 1832. However, Clay will find that the presidential politics of the Jackson era are not quite as easy to navigate as he might have originally imagined, especially as another new party, the Anti-Masonic Party, threatens to steal away support from Clay and open a path to reelection victory for the incumbent President. Source information for this episode can be found at http://whhpodcast.blubrry.com.


041 – Source Notes



“Some Account of some of the Bloody Deeds of Gen. Jackson” [c. 1828], courtesy of Wikipedia
Audio editing for this episode done by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Curtis, James C. The Fox at Bay: Martin Van Buren and the Presidency, 1837-1841. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1970.
  • Hargreaves, Mary W M. The Presidency of John Quincy Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1985.
  • Hopkins, James F. “Election of 1824.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1971. pp. 349-409.
  • Landry, Jerry. Harrison Podcast. 2017. http://whhpodcast.blubrry.com.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Remini, Robert V. “Election of 1828.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1971. pp. 413-492.
  • Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. New York: W W Norton & Co, 1991.
  • Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. Southern Honor: Ethics & Behavior in the Old South. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

041 – The Jacksonians Strike Back



Andrew Jackson by Thomas Sully [c. 1824], courtesy of Wikipedia
After four years of the Adams administration, the voters go to the polls once more in 1828 as Andrew Jackson once more challenges the man from Massachusetts. However, the President’s supporters, including his Secretary of State Henry Clay, soon learn that the nature of politics has greatly changed since 1824, and if they hope to have any chance moving forward, they’ll have to change with the times. The battle royale that is Jackson versus Adams is on, and when the dust settles, Henry Clay will be left trying to figure out where his future might lead. Source information for this episode can be found on http://whhpodcast.blubrry.com.


040 – Source Notes



Alexandre Pétion [c. 1808], courtesy of Wikipedia
Audio editing for this episode done by Andrew Pfannkuche.

Previous Harrison Podcast Episodes referenced in this episode include:

Other sources used for this episode include:

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Arana, Marie. Bolivar: The Epic Life of the Man Who Liberated South America. London: Phoenix, 2014 [2013].
  • Beauvois, Frédérique. “L’indemnité de Saint-Domingue: << Dette d’indépendance >> ou <<rançon de l’esclavage>>?” French Colonial History. 10 [2009] 109-124.
  • Blackburn, Robin. “Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution.” William and Mary Quarterly. 3rd Series, 63:4 (October 2006) 643-674.
  • Bourne, Kenneth. Britain and the Balance of Power in North America, 1815-1908. Berkeley, CA and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1967.
  • Elliott, J H. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492-1830. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2007 [2006].
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Hargreaves, Mary W M. The Presidency of John Quincy Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1985.
  • Hopkins, James F, ed. The Papers of Henry Clay, Volume 4: Secretary of State, 1825. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1972.
  • Hopkins, James F; and Mary W M Hargreaves, eds. The Papers of Henry Clay, Volume 5: Secretary of State, 1826. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1973.
  • Landry, Jerry. Harrison Podcast. 2017. http://whhpodcast.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President, First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Meacham, Jon. Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power. New York: Random House, 2012.
  • Munro, Dana. The Five Republics of Central America: Their Political and Economic Development and Their Relations With the United States. David Kinley, ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1918.
  • Niven, John. Martin Van Buren: The Romantic Age of American Politics. Newtown, CT: American Political Biography Press, 2012 [1983].
  • Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. New York: W W Norton & Co, 1991.
  • Rodríguez Ordóñez, Jaime E. “The Struggle for Dominance: The Legislature versus the Executive in Early Mexico.” The Birth of Modern Mexico, 1780-1824. Christon I Archer, ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007 [2003] P. 205-228.
  • Seager, Robert II, ed. The Papers of Henry Clay, Volume 7: Secretary of State, January 1, 1828-March 4, 1829. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1982.
  • Temperley, H W V. “The Later American Policy of George Canning.” The American Historical Review. 11:4 (Jul 1906) 779-797.
  • Whitaker, Arthur P. The United States and the Independence of Latin America, 1800-1830. New York: W W Norton & Co, 1964 [1938].
  • Willsher, Kim. “France urged to repay Haiti billions paid for its independence.” The Guardian. 15 Aug 2010. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/aug/15/france-haiti-independence-debt. [Last Accessed: 8 Aug 2017].

040 – Like a Not So Good Neighbor



Joel R Poinsett by Charles Fenderich, courtesy of Wikipedia

The State Department under Henry Clay attempts to make its pivot to a focus on Latin America, but in its engagement with other nations in the Western Hemisphere, the nation’s diplomatic office stumbles and at times falls completely short. Clay struggles to deal with overzealous diplomats, turbulent situations on the ground, and British intrigues to gain influence in the region at the expense of the United States. The Western Star faces his greatest challenge yet when he assumes the role of Secretary of State and learns just how fraught with peril geopolitical relations can be. Source information for this episode can be found at whhpodcast.blubrry.com.


039 – Source Notes



Portrait of Dom Pedro, Duke of Bragança (Emperor Pedro I of Brazil) [c. 1835], courtesy of Wikipedia
Audio editing and consultation on this episode provided by Andrew Pfannkuche

The first episode of Mike Duncan’s Revolutions on the Latin American Wars of Independence can be found here.

  • Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2000.
  • Arana, Marie. Bolivar: The Epic Life of the Man Who Liberated South America. London: Phoenix, 2014 [2013].
  • Bethell, Leslie. “Politics in Brazil: From Elections without Democracy to Democracy without Citizenship.” Daedalus. 129:2 (Spr 2000) 1-27.
  • Burns, E Bradford. A History of Brazil, Third Edition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
  • Cao, Benito. “White Hegemony in the (Re)Birth of Brazil.” Humanities Research. 17:1 (2011) 35-57.
  • Cary, Diana Serra. “Failed First Step Toward Mexican Independence.” Military History. 17:4 (Oct 2000) 34-41.
  • DuVal, Kathleen. Independence Lost: Lives on the Edge of the American Revolution. New York: Random House, 2016 [2015].
  • “El Grito de Dolores.” Wise Guide. Library of Congress. Sep 2009. https://www.loc.gov/wiseguide/sept09/independence.html [Last Accessed: 25 Jul 2017]
  • Elliott, J H. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492-1830. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2007 [2006].
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Manchester, Alan K. “The Growth of Bureaucracy in Brazil, 1808-1821.” Journal of Latin American Studies. 4:1 (May 1972) 77-83.
  • Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1997.
  • Paquette, Gabriel. “The Dissolution of the Spanish Atlantic Monarchy.” The Historical Journal. 52:1 [2009] 175-212.
  • Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. New York: W W Norton & Co, 1991.
  • Seager, Robert, II. The Papers of Henry Clay, Volume 8: Candidate, Compromiser, Whig, March 5, 1829-December 31, 1836. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1984.
  • Whitaker, Arthur P. The United States and the Independence of Latin America, 1800-1830. New York: W W Norton & Co, 1964 [1938].

Other sources for learning about the Latin American Wars of Independence that I came across in my research but did not have a chance to consult are as follows:

  • Bethell, Leslie. From Independence to 1870. The Cambridge History of Latin America, Vol. 3. Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Burns, Bradford E. The Poverty of Progress: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1980.
  • Chasteen, John Charles. Americanos: Latin America’s Struggle for Independence. Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Costeloe, Michael P. Response to Revolution: Imperial Spain and the Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1840. Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Dominguez, Jorge. Insurrection or Loyalty: the Breakdown of the Spanish American Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  • Hamill, Hugh M. The Hidalgo Revolt: Prelude to Mexican IndependenceGainesville: University of Florida Press, 1966.
  • Harvey, Robert. Liberators: Latin America`s Struggle For Independence, 1810-1830. John Murray, London (2000).
  • Prago, Albert. The Revolutions in Spanish America. New York: The Macmillan Co, 1970
  • Walker, Charles F. Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780–1840. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1999.